A term referring to change in the procedure of the courts allowing letters to be treated as writ petitions.
A legal principle that bars a party from denying or alleging a certain fact owing to that party’s previous conduct, allegation, or denial.
Translates from Latin as ’out of grace’. Where a court directs that a payment be made to a party ex gratia, it may not be adjusted against any legal right or claim of that party.
In absence of the opposite side or party.